Hazrat Imaam Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hambal rahmatullāhi alaihi

Hazrat Imaam Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hambal rahmatullāhi alaihi :

Laqab :
‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
Shaikh-ul-Islaam.

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Aap ki wilaadat Rabi’ ul awwal 164 Hijri (780 A.D.) ko Baghdad (Iraq) me hui.

Aap ke waalid ka naam Muhammad bin Hanbal al-Shaybani aur waalida ka naam Safia bint Maymunah al-Shaybania hai.

Aap Arab ke Banu Shaybaan qabeele se ta’alluq rakhte hain.

Aap ke waalid Basra ke the aur Khorasan me Abbaasi lashkar me sipaahi the aur phir Baghdad me rehne lage.

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10 saal ki umr me aap Haafiz e Qur’an hue.

Aap ke waalid ke wisaal ke baad Ilm e deen sikhne ke saath aap ne daak-khaane me kaam karna shuru kiya.

Aap ne Baghdad me Imaam Abu Haneefa ke shaagird Imaam Abu Yousuf rahmatullāhi alaihi se ke paas Fiqh ki taaleem haasil ki.
Aur Hazrat Haisam ibn Bishr se Hadees ki taaleem haasil ki.
Aap ne Bishr bin al-Mufaddal, Ismāeel bin Ulayyah, Jarir bin Abdul Hamid aur Yahyā bin Saeed se bhi taaaleem haasil ki.

Phir Hadees ke ilm ke liye aur jama karne ke liye aap Iraq (Kufa, Basra), Shaam (Syria) aur Arab (Makka, Madeena) mulko ka safar karte rahe.

Kuchh saal baad aap Baghdad waapis aaye aur Imaam Shaafi’i rahmatullāhi alaihi se Hadees aur Fiqh ki taleem haasil ki.
Phir Shaafi mazhab ki majeed taaleem haasil ki.
Imaam Shaafi’i ne aap ke baare me farmaaya ki ‘Main Baghdad ko chhod raha hu aur mere baad Ahmad bin Hambal se zyada afzal Aalim aur koi nai hai.’

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204 Hijri (820 A.D.) me aap ne logo ko taaleem dena shuru kiya.

Aap ke shaagirdo me Ibrāheem ibn Ya’aqoob al-Juzajani, Yahyā ibn Ma’een, Abu Bakr al-Alhram, Hambal bin Is’hāq aur Abul Qaasim al-Baghwi mash’hoor hain.

Aap hamesha saadgi ko apnaate. Aur kisi se koi tohfa nahi lete the.

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Aap ne 5 baar Hajj ki sa’adat haasil ki, jin me 3 martaba paidal Hajj ada kiye.

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Aap Hazrat Bishr al-Haafi rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed hain.

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Aap teesri sadi ke Mujaddid hain.

212 Hijri (827 A.D.) me Abbaasi Khalifa al-Ma’amoon ne Baghdad ke Qaazi Is’hāq bin Ibrāheem ko paigaam bheja ke ‘Tum Baghdaad ke tamaam ulama aur muqtadir logo ko jama’a karo aur un par ye Aqeeda pesh karo ke Qur’an Makhlooq hai, jo maan le us ko amaan do aur jo na maane un ke jawaab likhkar mujhe bhej do.’
Bahot se log is fitne me mubtila ho gaye aur jaan bachaane ki khaatir Qur’an Makhlooq hone ka baatil aqeeda qubool kar liya. Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal se jab puchha gaya to aap ne kaha ke ‘Main sirf ye kehta hu ke Qur’an ALLĀH ka kalaam hai.’ Is’hāq bin Ibrāheem ne aap ka jawaab Ma’amoon Rasheed ko likhkar bheja. Ma’moon Rasheed ne paigaam bheja ‘Jo shakhs is aqeede se muwaafiqat na kare us ko Dars aur iftaa se rok do.’
218 Hijri (833 A.D.) me al-Ma’amoon ne Mihna (Inquisition) shuru kiya aur Qaazi e Baghdaad ko likha ke ‘Jo Log is aqeeda se muwaafiqat na kare un ko qaid kar lo. Agar Khalq e Qur’an ka iqraar kar le to theek hai warna un ko qatl kar diya jaaye.’

Hazrat Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal, Hazrat Mohammad bin Nooh aur Hazrat Qawaareri ke siwa Baghdaad ke tamaam ulama ne khauf ke sabab Khalq e Qur’an ka iqraar kar liya. Qaazi ke hukm se Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal wagairah ko qaid kar ke Ma’moon ki taraf bhijwa diya gaya. Lekin us se pehle ke Ma’moon in buzurgo par talwaar uthaata Saif e Qaza ne khud us ka kaam tamaam kar diya.

Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ke shaagird Ahmad bin Gassan bayaan karte hain ke Khalifa ke hukm par mujhe aur Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal rahmatullāhi alaihi ko giraftaar kar ke khalifa ke paas le jaaya jaa raha tha. Raaste me Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ko ye khabar mili ke Khalifa Ma’amoon Rasheed ne qasam khai he ke agar Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ne Khalq e Qur’an ka qaul na kiya to wo unko aur unke shagird ko maar kar Halaak kar dega. Us Waqt Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ne aasmaan ki taraf sar utha kar kaha ‘Aye ALLĀH! Aaj us faajir ki itni jur’at ho gai ke ye tere Auliya ko lalkaarta hai. Agar tera Qur’an ghair makhlooq hai to hum se us ki mashakkat ko door farma.’
Abhi raat ka ek tihaai hissa bhi nahi guzra tha ke Sipaahi daudte hue aaye aur kaha ke ‘Aye Abu Abdullāh! Tum waaqai sache ho aur Qur’an ghair makhlooq hai. qasam bakhuda Khalifa halaak ho gaya.’

218 Hijri (833 A.D.) me Ma’amoon Rasheed halaak hua aur us ka bhai Moatasim billāh bin Hāroon Rasheed Khalifa bana. Ma’moon ki tarah al-Moatasim billāh bhi Aitezaal ka haami tha. Us ne hukoomat sambhaalne ke baad Aqeeda e Aitezaal ki tarwij ki. Pehle mukhtalif heelo se Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ko Aitezaal ki taraf maa’il karne ki koshish karta raha. Aakhir me 220 Hijri (835 A.D.) me us ne Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ko darbaar e khilaafat me talab kiya.

Us waqt Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ki umr 56 saal ki ho chuki thi aur jism jaeef ho chuka tha. Lekin aisaab folaad ki tarah mazboot aur iraade chattaan se zyada raasikh the. Khalifa ke saamne ek taweel munaazara hua. Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ka buniyaadi nukta ye tha ke Qur’an ALLĀH ka kalaam hai aur ALLĀH ta’ala ki sifat hai. Agar ye Haadis ho to ALLĀH ta’ala ki zaat mahal e hawaadis ban jaayegi aur ye Muhaal hai.’ Khalifa Imaam Ahmad ki is daleel ka koi jawaab na de saka.

Bil aakhir Mo’atazili qaazi aur Mo’atazili ulama ke mashware par Khalifa ne aap ko saza dene ka faisla kiya. Khalifa ne jallaad ko bulaaya aur us se Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ke jism par kode maarne ka hukm diya. Ek jallaad jab kode maarte maarte thak jaata to dusra jallaad aata. Is tarah baar baar jallaad badalte rahe aur Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal sabr o isteqaamat se kode khaate rahe.
Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal ko jab kode maare jaa rahe the to usi ashna me zarb e shadeed ki wajah se aap ka izaarband toot gaya. Qareeb tha ke be-satari ho jaati. Aap ne ALLĀH se dua ki ‘Ya Ilāhal aalameen! Tu khoob jaanta hai. Agar main haq par hu to meri pardaposhi farma.’ Foran aap ka paajaama apni jagah rook gaya jaise kisi ne aap ke tehband ko khulne se rok liye.

Qaidkhaane me jab aap be-hosh ho gaye aur logo ko is baat ka pata chala to Baghdad me inqalaab ka maahol ho gaya. Is liye al-Mu’tasim ko aap ko riha karna pada.
Daar ul Khilaafat se Qaazi Is’hāq bin Ibrāheem Mo’atazali ke makaan par laaye gaye. Aap Rozedaar the. Kamzori bahot thi, lihaaza khaane ke liye sattoo wagairah laaye gaye lekin aap ne roza mukammal farmaaya.
Zohar ki namaaz wahi adaa farmaai. Qaazi Ibne Sama’a ne kaha ke ‘Aap ne namaaz khoon aalooda jism wa kapdo me padh li?’ Aap ne farmaaya ke ‘Hazrat Umar Faarooq radiy-Allāhu anhu ne bhi isi haalat me namaaz padhi thi.’ Ye sunkar Qaazi khaamosh ho gaye.

Mo’atzila ke is fitne me 5 ulama saabit qadam rahe aur aap sab ke sardaar the. In me se Mohammad bin Nooh ka inteqaal raaste hi me ho gaya, Naeem bin Hammaad Khazaai aur Abu Ya’aqoob ka wisaal qaid khaane me hua, Aur chauthe Ahmad bin Nasr Khazaai.

Is mauqe par kisi ne aap se kaha ki ‘Jab bahot zyada zulm hone ka khatra ho to us ki baat maan leni chaahiye aur dil me hume apna aqeeda sahi rakhna chaahiye, shariat me is ki ijaazat hai.’ To aap ne farmaaya ‘Agar main khaamosh rahunga aur tum bhi khaamosh rahoge to jaahilo ko sahi baat kaun samjhayega?’

Is ke baad 227 Hijri (841 A.D.) me al-Moatasim billāh ke baad us ka beta al-Waasiq billāh khalifa bana. Us ne aap ko Baghdad se baahar bhej diya aur Baghdad me aane par rok laga di.

233 Hijri (848 A.D.) me al-Waasiq ka bhai al-Mutawakkil Khalifa bana, jo Sunni aqeede par tha. Us ne aap ko phir se ba-izzat Baghdad waapas bulaaya.

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Aap ki likhi hui mash’hoor kitaaben :

(1) Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(2) Kitaab-ul-Ilal wa Ma’arifat al-Rijaal
(3) Kitaab-ul-Manaasik
(4) Kitaab-ul-Zuhad
(5) Kitaab-ul-Eimaan
(6) Kitaab-ul-Masaa’il
(7) Kitaab-ul-Fara’iz
(8) Kitaab-ul-Fazaa’il al-Sahaaba
(9) Kitaab Sa’ah-ul-Rasool
(10) Kitaab-ul-Mansukh
(11) Kitaab al-Radd ala al-Zanadiqa wal-Jahmiyya
(12) Kitaab-ul-Ashribah.

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Aap Aa’imma e Araba me se hain.
Aap ka mazhab e fiqh (School of law or Islamic jurisprudence) ‘Hanbali’ naam se mashhoor hai.

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Aap ke 2 biwiya aur 7 saahabzaade aur 1 saahbzaadi hain.

(1) Abbaasah bint Fazl (Nikaah 204 Hijri /819 A.D.) se
1 saahabzaada : Saalih.

(2) Raihanah bint Umar se
1 saahabzaada : Abdullāh.

(3) Ummul walad
Husn se
5 saahabzaade : Hasan aur Husain (jin ks bachpan me hi inteqaal hua), Hasan aur Muhammad, Saeed.
1 saahabzaadi : Zainab.

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Aap ke paas Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke 3 baal mubarak the. Aap ne apne saahabzaade ko wasiyat farmaai ke ‘Mere wisaal ke baad ek baal mubarak meri daayi aankh par, ek baal mubarak baayi aankh par aur ek baal mubarak mere munh me rakh dena.’

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Aap ka wisaal 12 Rabi’ ul aakhir 241 Hijri (855 A.D.) ko 77 saal ki umr me hua.
Aap ke janaaza me taqreeban 800000 saamil hue.

Aap ki namaaz e janaaza ke waqt 40000 ghair- muslim kalma padhkar Islaam me daakhil hue.

Aap ka mazaar Baghdad (Iraq) me hai.

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Aap ke wisaal ke 230 saal baad aap ke mazaar ke pehlu me ek dusri qabr khodi gai to aap ki qabr ka ek taraf ka hissa khul gaya. Jab logo ne dekha to aap ka jism aur kafan dono mehfooz the.

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ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Imaam Ahmad bin Hambal rahmatullāhi alaihi ke aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae. aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.
Aameen