Qurbaani ka bayaan :

Qur’an :
108 Surah al-Kauṡar, Aayat 2 :

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ
Pas apne Rab ke liye Namaaz padho aur Qurbaani diya karo.

Hadeeṡ e Nabawi :

(1) Hazrate Aa’isha Siddeeqa radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anha se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Qurbaani ke dino me aadami ka koi kaam Rab ki baargaah me khoon bahane (ya’ni jaanwar ki Qurbaani karne) se zyada pyara nahi aur wo jaanwar qayaamat ke din apni singo aur khuro ke saath aayega aur qurbaani ka khoon zameen par girne se pehle Rab ta’ala ke nazdeek qubooliyat ke maqaam pahunch jaata hai.’
(Tirmizi;
Ibne Maajah)

(2) Hazrat Imaam Hasan al-Mujtaba ibn Ali radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anha se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Jis ne khulus dil se Taalib e sawaab ho kar qurbaani ki wo Qurbaani jahannam ki aag se aad ho jaayegi.’

(3) Hazrate Abu Huraira radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Jis par Qurbaani waajib ho aur wo na kare to hamari Eidgaah ke qareeb hargiz na aaye.’
(Ibne Maajah)

(4) Hazrat Jundab radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne Namaaz padhane ke baad Khutba diya, Phir Qurbaani ki aur farmaaya,
‘Jis ne (Eid Ki) Namaaz se pehle Qurbaani kar di ho use badle me dusre jaanwar ki Qurbaani karni chaahiye Aur jis ne Namaaz se pehle Qurbaani na ki ho wo ALLĀH ke naam se Qurbaani kare.’
(Sahih Bukhari, Jild -2, Hadeeṡ -985)

(5) Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne Hazrate Sayyeda Faatima radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se farmaaya
‘Aye Faatima, Utho aur apni qurbaani ke jaanwar ke paas maujood raho, us ke khoon ka pehla katra girte hi saahib e qurbaani ki tamaam khatayen muaf kar di jaati hai.’

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Qurbaani ki ta’areef :
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ALLĀH ke liye ṡawaab ki Niyyat se Khaas jaanwar ko makhsoos ayyaam me zibah karna ‘Qurbaani’ hai.

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Masa’il :
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(1) Qurbaani Musalmaan, Muqeem, Aazaad, Maalik e nisaab par Waajib hai.

(2) Qurbaani Mard aur Aurat dono par waajib hai.

(3) Musaafir par qurbaani waajib nahi, lekin agar nafl ke taur par karna chaahe to kar sakta hai sawaab paayega.

(4) Qurbaani ek maali ibaadat hai jo Ghani par waajib hai.

(5) Maalik e nisaab se muraad itna maal ho jitne maal se Sadqa e fitr waajib hota hai ya’ni haajat e asliya ke ilaawa 200 dirham (saade 52 tola chaandi) ya 20 deenaar (saade 7 tola sona) ka maalik ho.

(6) Maqrooz (Qarzdaar) ke paas itna maal hai ke Qarz nikaalne ke baad Nisaab tak pahunch jaata hai to us par Qurbaani waajib hai, warna nahi.

(7) Agar kisi ke paas maal hai magar is waqt maujood nahi ya’ni qurbaani ke baad milega to us par Qurbaani Waajib nahi ayyaam e Qurbaani me bhi nahi aur is ke baad bhi nahi.

(8) Agar pariwaar me jitne shakhs Maalik e nisaab hain un tamaam par alag alag Qurbaani karna Waajib hai.
Sirf baap hi saahib e nisaab hai to sirf usi par Qurbaani Waajib hai, aulaad par nahi. Agar wasiyat karke milkiyat ka hissa zaahir kar diya ho magar aulaad ko un ka hissa nahi mila hai ya baap ke marne ke baad milega to wo saahib e nisaab nahi. Is soorat me Aulaad ki taraf se Qurbaani Mustahab hai.
Aulaad me se jo bhi saahib e nisaab ho un sab par Qurbaani Waajib hai, Waalid ki Qurbaani kaafi nahi.
Isi tarah Biwi saahib e nisaab hai to us par Qurbaani Waajib hai.

(9) Kisi ne Qurbaani ke liye jaanwar kharida tha wo gum ho gaya aur us ka maal nisaab se kam hua to us par dusra jaanwar kharidkar Qurbaani karna Waajib nahi.
Agar wo jaanwar Ayyaam e Qurbaani me hi mil jaaye to us waqt saahib e nisaab hai to Qurbaani Waajib hai warna Mustahab.

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Qur’an :
22 Surah al-Hajj, Aayat 37 :

Hargiz ALLĀH ko na to un (qurbaaniyo) ka gosht pahunchta hai aur na un ka khoon magar ise tumhari taraf se Taqwa [parhezgaari] pahunchta hai.

ALLĀH ta’ala sirf Qurbaani ya’ni Jaanwar ko zibah karna nahi maangta, balke Qurbaani ke saath Ahkaam e shariat ki paabandi aur parhezgaari aur Islaam ke liye apne maal wa jaan ki qurbaani pesh karne ka jazba chaahta hai.
Is liye Qurbaani me Ikhlaas aur Raza e ilāhi ki aur Ita’at wa Itteba e Rasool sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ki niyyat honi chaahiye. Riya (dikhaawa) aur Takabbur waali Qurbaani maqbool na hogi. Haan, ye khushi honi chaahiye ke ALLĀH ta’ala ne apne fazl se Qurbaani karne ke qaabil banaaya.

Qurbaani Hazrate Ibrāheem alaihis salaam ki Sunnat hai. Aap ALLĀH ta’ala ke farmaan par apne ek laute farzand Hazrate Ismā’eel alaihis salaam ki Qurbaani paish karne ke liye tayyar hue aur dono baap aur bete ne apne mukammal Ishq e ilāhi paish kiya. ALLĀH ta’ala ne in ki Qurbaani qubool farmaakar Hazrate Jibr’eel alaihis salaam ke saath jannat se dumba bheja aur Hazrate Ismaa’eel alaihis salaam ke badle us dumbe ki qurbaani hui.
Is liye musalman ko Qurbaani ka puri tarah ehtaraam karna laazim hai.

(1) Qurbaani aur Qurbaani ke jaanwaro ke ta’aalluq se kisi bhi qism ke behuda faaltu Lateefe (Jokes), Shaayari, Tasweeren, Audio ya Video share na karen.

(2) Jaanwar kharidte waqt us ki munaasib qeemat ada karen, na bahot zyada na bahot kam. Agar 15000 se 20000 ki qeemat ka jaanwar mil jaata hai jo qurbaani ke laa’iq hai to wo hi behtar hai. 100000 se 150000 ka jaanwar kharidna ye fuzul-kharchi (maal ko zaaya karna) hai aur is me Riya aur Takabbur saamil hai. Agar kam qeemat me jaanwar mil jaata hai to baaqi raqam ko aap khairaat karke ghareebo-miskeeno aur haajatmando ko madad kar sakte hain.

(3) Qurbaani ka jaanwar kharidne me aur deeagar kharch me sirf Halaal maal ko kharch karen, Haraam maal se ki gai qurbaani maqbool na hogi.

(4) Qurbaani ke jaanwar kharidte waqt ya un ko apne makaan par rakhne ke dauraan ya Zibah karne ke dauraan ya us ke baad photo ya video banaana ye bhi gunaah hai.

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Qurbaani ke jaanwar ke masaa’il :
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(1) Oont, Gaaye, Bail, Bhens, Bakri, Bhed, Dumba in jaanwar ki Qurbaani ho sakti hai.
Nar ho ya maada, Khassi ho ya ghair-khassi.

Wehshi (jangali) jaanwar jaise Hiran, Neel gaaye, Baara singha wagairah ki Qurbaani nahi ho sakti.

(2) Jab kisi shakhs me aage bayaan ki gai Qurbaani ki Sharten paai jaaye to us par Bakri, Bhed ya Dumba Zibah karna ya Bade jaanwar ya’ni Oont, Gaaye, Bail ya Bhens ka 7wa hissa Waajib hai. Is se kam nahi ho sakta, ya’ni 1 shakhs ki taraf se 1 jaanwar ki Qurbaani karni hogi aur bade jaanwar me 7 se zyada log shareek nahi ho sakte.

(3) Qurbaani ke jaanwar ki umr :
Oont 5 saal;
Gaaye, Bail, Bhens 2 saal;
Bakri, Bhed, Dumba 1 saal.

Is se kam umr ho to najaa’iz hai.
Haan, Agar Dumba ya Bhed ka 6 maaha bacha itna bada ho ke door se dekhne me saal bhar ka maaloom hota ho Qubaani jaa’iz hai.

(4) Qurbaani ka jaanwar mota, taaza aur achha hona chaahiye. Aibi na hona chaahiye.
Agar thoda sa aib ho to qurbaani ho jaayegi magar makrooh rahegi aur agar ziyada aib hai to hogi hi nahi.

Munda jis ke paidaishi sing na ho jaa’iz hai.
Agar singh the aur tut gaye meng (guda) tak tut gaye to jaa’iz nahi is se kam tuta to jaa’iz hai.

Behad dubla, Andha, kaana, langda, kaan kata, dum kata, be dant ka, than kata,than sukha, naak kata, paidaishi be-kaan ka, beemaar, khansa (jis ke dono nishaaniya ho), jal’lala (jo sirf ghaliz khata ho) in sab ki qurbaani jaa’iz nahi.

Beemaari agar khafifa hai aur langdapan halka hai ki chal fir leta hai qurbaan-gaah tak ja sakta hai ya naak, kaan, dum tihai se ziyada nahi kate to jaa’iz hai.

Aisa paagal jaanwar jo charta na ho, ya kisi beemaari ki wajah se chaara na khaa sakta ho, Itna kamzor ke theek se khada na reh sakta ho aise jaanwar ki qurbaani jaa’iz nahi.

Qurbaani karte waqt jaanwar uchhla kooda aur us se aibi ho gaya to harj nahi.

(5) Qurbaani ki aur pait me zinda bacha hai to use bhi zibah kar den ya Aur kaam me bhi laa sakte hain aur mara hua ho to use phenk den.
Kharidne ke baad Qurbaani se pehle jaanwar ne bacha de diya to use bhi zibah kar daalen aur agar bech diya to us ki qeemat ko Sadqa karen.
Agar Ayyaam e Qurbaani me zibah na kiya to zinda sadqa kar den.

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Qurbaani me Shirkat ke masa’il :
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(1) Jab Bade jaanwar ki qurbaani me 7 log shareek ho to agar kisi shareek ka hissa 7we se kam hai to kisi ki Qurbaani sahi na hogi.
Haan, agar 7 se kam shareek ho aur hisse bhi kam o besh ho, Lekin kisi ka hissa 7we se kam na ho to jaa’iz hai.

(2) Qurbani ke tamaam shareeko ki niyyat taqarrub ya’ni sawaab paana hona chaahiye, khaali gosht haasil karna na ho. Lihaaza Aqeeqa karne waala shareek ho sakta hai (ki Aqeeqa bhi taqarrub ki ek surat hai).

(3) Qurbani me sirf mo’mino ko hi shareek karen, Kaafir ya bad-mazhab ko shareek karna jaa’iz nahi.

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Qurbaani ka waqt :
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(1) Qurbaani ka waqt 10wi Zil Hijja ki Subah saadiq se 12wi ke Ghuroob e aaftaab tak ya’ni 3 din aur 2 raaten; Lekin 10wi ko afzal hai. phir 11wi, phir 12wi.

(2) Qurbaani ke waqt me qurbaani hi karna laazim hai itni raqam ya itni qeemat ka jaanwar Sadqa karne se waajib ada na hoga.

(3) Qurbaani ke din guzar jaane ke baad qurbaani faut ho gai, ab nahi ho sakti . Lihaza agar koi jaanwar qurbaani ke liye khareed rakha hai to us ko sadqa kare warna ek bakri ki qeemat sadqa kare.

(4) Shaher me qurbaani ki jaaye to shart ye hai ki namaaz e Eid ke baad ho, aur dehaat me chunki namaaz e Eid nahi hai is liye subah saadiq ke baad ho sakti hai.

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Qurbaani ka tareeqa :
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(1) Behtar ye hai ke jaanwar umda farbah ho.
Qurbaani se pehle use chaara paani de den ya’ni Bhuka pyaasa zibah na karen.

(2) Ek ke saamne dusre ko zibah na karen.

(3) Pehle Se chhuri tez kar len aisa na ho ke Janwar giraane ke baad us ke saamne chhuri tez ki jaaye.

(4) Jaanwar ko Baayen pehlu par is tarah letaaye ke Qibal ki jaanib us ka munh ho aur daahina paav us ke pehlu par rakhkar tez chhuri se jald zibah kar diya jaaye.

(5) Zibah se pehle ye Dua padhen :

“اِنِّیْ وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِيْ فَطَرَالسَّمٰوٰت وَالْاَرْضَ حَنِيْفًا وَّمَا اَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْن. اِنَّ صَلٰوتِيْ وَنُسُكِيْ وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِيْ لِلّهِ ربِّ الْعٰلَمِيْ
لََا شَرِيْكَ لَه وَبِذٰلِكَ اُمِرْتُ وَاَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ. اَللّهُمَّ لَكَ وَ مِنْكَ بِسْمِ اللهِ اللهُ اَكْبَرُ ”

Inni wajjahtu wajahiyaa lillazee fataras-samaawaati wal arda Haneefanw wama anaa minal mushrikeen, Inaas salaatee wa nusukee wa mahyaayaa wa mamaatee lillāhi Rabbil aalameen. Laa shareeka lahoo wa bizaalika umirtu wa anaa minal muslimeen. Allāhumma laka wa minka Bismillāhi Allāhu Akbar.

Ise padhkar foran Zibah kar den.

Qurbaani apni taraf se ho to zibah ke baad ye Dua padhen :

” اَللّھُمَّ تَقَبَّلْ مِنِّيْ كَمَا تَقَبَّلْتَ مِنْ خَلِيْلِكَ اِبْرَاهِيْمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام وَحَبِيْبِكَ مُحَمَّدٍ صــلَّى اللّٰــهُ تعـَـالٰى عَليْــه وسَـلَّمْ ”

Allāhumma taqabbal minni kamaa taqabbalta min khaleelika Ibrāheem alaihis salaam wa Habeebika Mohammadin sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam.

Aur agar dusre ki taraf se Zibah karna hai to “مِنِّي ” ki jagah “مِن” ke baad us shakhs ka naam len.
Aur mushtarik jaanwar hai to sab shareeko ke naam len.

(6) Is tarah Zibah karen ke chaaron ragen (Hulqum jis se saans aati jaati hai, Muri jis se khaana wa paani utarta hai aur Wadajain in kea gal bagal do ragen jin me khoon ki rawaani hoti hai) kat jaayen ya kam se kam teen ragen kat jaayen. Is se zyada na kaate ke chhuri gardan ke mohra tak pahunch jaaye.

(7) Phir jab tak Jaanwar thanda na ho jaaye ya’ni jab tak us ki rooh bilkul nikal na jaaye us ke Paav wagairah na kaate na khaal utaaren.

(8) Agar dusre se zibah karayen to behtar hai ke khud bhi haazir rahe.

(9) Kaafir ya Bad-mazhab ka Zibah kiya hua Halaal nahi hai.

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Qurbani ke Gosht ke masa’il :
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(1) Qurbaani ke gosht ke 3 hisse karen :
1 hissa Ghareebo aur mohtaajo ke liye,
1 hissa Rishtedaaro aur azeezo ke liye,
Aur 1 hissa Apne aur ghar walo ke liye.

(2) Agar ghar waale zyada ho to kul gosht ghar ke sarf me la sakta hai.
Aur agar kul Sadqa karna chaahe to bhi kar sakta hai agarche 1 hissa apne liye behtar hai.

(3) Agar Qurbaani ka jaanwar Mushtarik hai to Gosht tolkar taqseem kiya jaaye. Atkal (andaaze) se na baante ke Agar kisi ko zyada pahunch gaya to dusre ke muaf karne se bhi jaa’iz na hoga ke haq shara’an hai.
Phir apne hisse ke gosht ke 3 hisse karen.

(4) Agar mayyat ki taraf se (nafl) qurbaani ki to is ke gosht ka bhi isi tarh 3 hisse karne ka hukm hai.

Albatta agar mayyat ne kaha tha ki meri taraf se qurbaani kar de na to is surat me kul gosht Sadqa kar den.
Qurbaani agar mayyat ki hai to us ka gosht na khud kha sakta hai na ghani ko khila sakta hai, Balke us ko Sadqa karna waajib hai ya’ni ghareebo ko de den.

(5) Qurbaani karne waala Eid ul Ad’ha ke din sab se pehle Qurbaani ka gosht khaaye ye Mustahab hai.

(6) Halaal jaanwar ke bhi chand aaza khaana mamnoo hai :
[1] Murara (Pitta) [2] Masaana (Phunkna) [3] Ojhdi [4] Am’aa (Aante) [5] Dubar (Pakhaana khaarij hone ka maqaam) [6] Unsayain (Kapura) [7] Zakar (Nar jaanwar ki peshaab-gaah) [8] Furj (Maada jaanwar ki peshaab-gaah) [9] Putthe (Gardan me dono taraf kandho tak pile rang ka hissa) [10] Gudood (Gosht me jo jame hue Khoon ki Gaanthe hoti hain).

Nutfaa (Manee), Woh nutfaa jo khoon ho gaya, ya gosht ka lothda ho gaya, ya pura jaanwar ban gaya aur murda nikla ya zibah kiye baghair mar gaya wo bhi haraam hai.

Dame Masfuh (Zibah karte waqt jo khoon nikalta hai) haraam hai.
Zibah k baad jo khoon gosht me reh jaata hai -jaise gardan ke kate hue hisse par, Dil ke Andar, Kaleji aur Tilli me aur gosht ke andar ki chhoti chhoti ragon me,Ye sab naapaak to nahi magar is Khoon ka bhi khaanaa mamnu hai.
Is liye pakaane se pehle khoob achchi tarah safaai kar len.

Pakne ke baad wo ragen kaali dori ki tarah ho jaati hain – Khaas kar Bheje, Sirri, Paaye aur Murghi ki Raan aur Par ke gosht me, baarik kaali Doriyan dekhi jaati hai, khaate waqt in ko nikaal den.

(7) Qurbaani ke gosht ya chamda kassaab ya zibah karne wale ko mazdoori me nahi de sakte. Haan, hadiyatan hissa diya tode sakte hain jab ke ujrat me shumaar na karen.

(8) Qurbaani ki khaal Deeni madrase me dena jaa’iz hai. Aur use bechkar us ki qeemat bhi madrase me de sakta hai.

(9) Baaz jagah qurbaani ka chamda Masjid ke Imaam ko dete hain, Agar tankhwaah me na diya jaaye balke bataure madad ke den to harj nahi.

(10) Kaafir (Ghair-muslim) ko Qurbaani ka gosht dena mana hai. Is ka khayaal rakhen.
Agar un ko dena ho to dusra gosht kharidkar alag rakhen aur us me se den.

(11) Chmda, jhola, rassi sab sadqa kar den.
Chamde ko khud apne kaam me bhi la sakta hai.
Maslan bichhauna, jaanamaaz, dol, wagairah bana sakta hai. Lekin bechkar us ki qeemat apne kaam me kharch karna jaa’iz nahi.
Agar bech diya to us raqam sadqa kar dena Waajib hai.

(12) Ghareebo aur haajat-mando ko un ka hisse ka Qurbaani ka gosht pahunchane me jaldi karen taake wo us gosht ko khaakar Eid ul Ad’ha ki khushi mana saken. Rishtedaaro aur azeezo ko bataur e hadiya gosht diya jaata hai. Is liye jin ke yaha qurbaani hoti hai un ko gosht der se mile to un ko koi farq nahi padega. Magar Ghareebo ko gosht jaldi pahunchakar un ki duaen haasil karen. Jaanbuzkar der karna sahi nahi hai.

(12) Qurbaani ke baad jo jaanwar ke jin aaza ko khaana haraam ya makrooh hai unhe dafn kar diya jaaye, raaste par ya kude me daalna sahi nahi hai.
Aur jaanwar ka gosht ya haddi wagairah bhi raaste par ya kude me na daalkar be-hurmati na karen.
Isi tarah jaanwar ka pakhaana ya dusri napaaki raaste par daalkar gandagi karke dusro ko takleef dena buri baat hai aur gunaah hai. Is se bachen.

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Kassaab ko jaanwar zibah karne ki ujrat jaldi de den. Jaanbujh kar Der karna gunaah hai.

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ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur In baato ko yaad rakhkar amal karne ki aur dusro ko bataane ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko Ikhlaas ke saath ALLĀH ta’ala ki raza ke liye Qurbaani karne ki taufiq ata farmae aur Qurbaani qubool farmakar foyuz o barkaat ata farmae.
Aameen.

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