Sadqa-e-Fitr ka bayaan :

Qur’an :
2 Surah al-Baqarah, Aayat 254 :

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْفِقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ

Aye Eimaan walo, jo kuchh hum ne tumhe ata kiya hai us me se (ALLĀH ki raah me nek kaam me) kharch karo, is se pehle ke wo din aa jaaye jis me na koi khareed wa farokht hoga aur (munkiro ke liye) na koi dost hoga na sifaarish, aur ye kaafir hi zaalim hain.

Hadeeṡe Nabawi :

(1) Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya ki :
‘Bande ka Roza aasmaan wa zameen me rooka rehta hai jab tak wo Sadqa e Fitr ada na kare.’
(Ibne Asaakir)

(2) Hazrate Ibne Umar radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Sadqa e Fitr Aazaad Mard, Aurat, Bache aur Budhe har musalman par waajib hai ek saa’a Jav ya Khajoor.’ Aur hukm farmaaya ki ‘Namaaz e Eid ke liye nikalne se pehle us ko ada kiya jaaye.’
(Bukhari;
Muslim)

(3) Hazrate Asma bint Abu Bakr Siddeeq radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anha se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Maal ko thaili me band karke na rakhna warna ALLĀH ta’ala bhi us ke khazaane me tumhare liye bandish laga dega. Jaha tak ho sake logo me khairaat taqseem kiya karo.’
(Sahih Bukhari, Jild -2, Hadees -1434)

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Sadqa e Fitr ke baare me chand khaas baaten :
‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
(1) Sadqa e Fitr har Musalman Aazaad Maalik e nisaab par (jis ki nisaab haajat e asliya ke ilaawa ho) Waajib hai.
Is me Aaqil, Baaligh aur Maal e naami hona ya’ni maal par saal guzarna shart nahi.

(2) Mard Maalik e nisaab par apni taraf se aur apne chhote bacho ki taraf se Sadqa e Fitr waajib hai, jab ke bacha khud Maalik e nisaab na ho.
Agar bacha Maalik e nisaab ho to us ka Sadqa e Fitr usi ke maal se diya jaaye.
Aur majnoon aulaad agarche baaligh ho us ka Sadqa e Fitr us ke baap par waajib hai jab ke Ghani na ho aur ghani ho to khud us ke maal se diya jaaye.
Aurat ya Baaligh Aulaad ka Sadqa e Fitr unke baghair izn (ijaazat) ada kar diya to ada ho gaya Ba-sharte ke Aulaad us ki Ayaal me ho ya’ni us ka Nafqa us ke zimme ho warna Aulaad ki taraf se bila ijaazat ada na hoga aur Aurat ne agar Shohar ka Sadqa e Fitr baghair hukm diya to ada na huwa.

(3) Agar baap na ho to baap ki jagah Daada par apne Yateem Faqeer Pote -poti ki taraf se us ka Sadqa e Fitr dena Waajib hai.
Maa par apne chhote Bachcho ki taraf se Sadqa e Fitr dena waajib nahi.

(4) Sadqa e Fitr Shakhs par waajib hai Maal par nahi. Lihaaza mar gaya to us ke maal se Ada nahi kiya jaayega. Haan, agar waariseen bataur ehsaan apni taraf se ada karen to ho sakta hai, un par koi jabr nahi aur agar wasiyat kar gaya hai to tihaai maal se zuroor ada kiya jaayega agarche waarasa ijaazat na den.

(5) Eid ke din Subah saadiq shuru hote hi Sadqa e Fitr waajib ho jaata hai.

Lihaaza Subah saadiq se pehle mar gaya ya faqeer ho gaya to us par Sadqa e Fitr waajib na hua.
Aur Subah saadiq shuru hone ke baad mara us par Sadqa e Fitr waajib hai.

Subah saadiq shuru hone ke baad jo Bacha paida hua ya jo Kaafir musalman hua ya jo Faqeer tha wo ghani hua us par Sadqa e Fitr waajib na hua.
Aur Subah saadiq shuru hone se pehle Bacha paida hua ya Kaafir musalman hua ya jo Faqeer tha wo ghani hua us par Sadqa e Fitr waajib hai.

(6) Sadqa e Fitr waajib hone ke liye Roza rakhna Shart nahi.
Agar kisi sharai Uzr ya’ni Safar, Marz (Beemaari), Budhaapa, Hamal aur bache ko doodh pilaana ki wajah se ya Ma’az ALLĀH Bila uzr Roza na rakha jab bhi Sadqa e Fitr waajib hai .

(7) Eid se pehle Sadqa e Fitr ada kar dena Sunnat hai.
Magar us ka waqt Umr bhar hai. Agar ada na kiya ho to zindagi me jab bhi ada karega ada ho jaaega. Us ki qaza nahi.
Aur ada na karne se Saakit na hoga. Baad me bhi ada karna hoga.

(8) Sadqa e Fitr ki Miqdaar :
Gehu ya us ka aata ya sattu – Nisf (aadha) saa’a (Ya’ani 2 kg 45 g),
Khajoor ya Munaqqa ya Jav ya us ka aata ya sattu – 1 Saa’a.
Gehu aur Jav mile hue ho aur Gehu ziyada hai to – Nisf Saa’a warna – 1 Saa’a.

Gehu aur Jav ke dene ke bajaay un ka Aata dena afzal hai ur is se afzal ye hai ke Qeemat de de, chaahe Gehu ki qeemat de ya Jav ki ya Khajoor ki.
Magar giraani (mehngaai) me in cheezo ko hi dena qeemat dene se afzal hai.
Aur agar kharaab Gehu ya Jav ki qeemat di to achhe ki qeemat se jo kami pade wo puri kare .

NOTE :
Saa’a ka wazan 351 Rupye bhar hai aur Nisf Saa’a ka wazan 175 Rupye Athanni bhar upar hai, Ya’ani Aaj ke wazan se Nisf Saa’a 2 kg 45 ya 50 g hai.

(9) Sadqa e Fitr ke Masaarif 6 hain :
[1] Faqeer – Ya’ni wo aadami jis ke paas kuchh maal ho magar itna na ho ke nisaab ko pahunch jaaye ya nisaab ke barabar ho to us ki haajate asliya me mustagarik ho.
[2] Miskeen – Ya’ni Jis ke paas kuchh na ho yaha tak ke khaane aur badan chhupane ke liye bhi uska mohtaaj hai ke logo se sawal kare.
[3] Ghaarim – Madyoon ya’ni jis par itna Dain (qarz) ho ke use nikaalne ke baad nisaab baaqi na rahe.
[4] Raqaab – Ya’ni Makaatib Ghulaam jo us maal se badle kitaabat dekar apni garden chhudakar aazad ho sake.
[5] Ibn-us-Sabeel – Ya’ni wo Musaafir jis ke paas safar ke dauraan maal na raha agarche ghar par maal maujood ho. Magar itna hi le jis se zaroorat puri ho jaaye, ziyada nahi.
[6] Fee sabeelillāh – Raah e khuda me kharch karna Ya’ni Taalib e ilm ko Ilm e deen sikhne ke liye ya Jihaad me jaane wale ko agar us ke paas saamaan na ho to.

Sadqa e Fitr ke Masaarif wahi hain jo Zakaat ke hain (siwa e Aamil ke, ki us ke liye Zakaat hai Fitra nahi).
Ya’ni jin ko Zakaat de sakte hain unhe Fitra bhi de sakte hain aur jinhe Zakaat nahi de sakte unhe Fitra bhi nahi de sakte.

(10) Ek Shakhs ka Sadqa e Fitr ek Miskeen ko dena behtar hai aur Chand masaakeen ko de diya jab bhi jaa’iz hai.
Yunhi ek Miskeen ko chand logon ka Sadqa e Fitr dena bhi jaa’iz hai, agarche sab Fitre mile hue ho.

(11) Kaafir ya Bad-mazhab ko Sadqa e Fitr nahi de sakte.

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ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur in baato ko yaad rakhkar us par amal karne ki aur dusro ko bataane ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Maah e Ramazaan ki ta’azeem karne ki aur is me sahi tareeqe se zyada ibaadat karne ki aur is ke foyuz o barkaat haasil karne ki taufiq ata farmae aur gunaaho se bachne ki taufiq ata farmae aur hamare Roza, Namaaz, Zakaat, Sadqa e Fitr, Tilaawat e Qur’an aur tamaam nek amal qubool farmae aur Sab ko dunya aur aakhirat me bhalai ata farmae.
Aameen.

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