Sadqa ka bayaan

Qur’an :
2 Surah al-Baqarah, Aayat 254 :

Aye Eimaan walo Jo kuchh hum ne tumhe ata kiya hai us me se (ALLĀH ki raah me nek kaam me) kharch karo.

57 Surah al-Hadeed, Aayat 18 :

Beshak Sadqa dene wale mard aur sadqa dene wali aurte aur jinho ne (ALLĀH ke liye nek kaam me kharch karke) ALLĀH ko qarz e hasan ke taur par qarz diya un ke liye (is ka sawaab) kai guna badha diya jaayega aur un ke liye (is ka) behtareen ajr hoga.

Hadees e Nabawi :

(1) Hazrate Asma bint Abu Bakr Siddeeq radi-Allāhu ta’ala anha se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Maal ko thaili me band karke na rakhna warna ALLĀH ta’ala bhi us ke khazaane me tumhare liye bandish laga dega. Jaha tak ho sake logo me khairaat taqseem kiya karo.’

(Sahih Bukhari, Jild -2, Hadees -1434)

(2) Khairaat ko mat roko warna tumhara Rizq bhi rok diya jaayega.
(Bukhari)

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Sadqa ka ma’ana hai ke ALLĀH ta’ala ki ibaadat ki liye apne maal me se Faqeero aur Mohtaajo ko madad karna.

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Sadqa ki qismen :
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(1) Farz :
Zakaat – Maah e Ramazaan me Saahib e Nisaab par Farz hai.

(2) Waajib :
Sadqa e Fitr – Maah e Ramazaan me Saahib e Nisaab par Waajib hai.
Sadqa e Nazr – Agar Sadqe ki Mannat maani to mannat puri hone par (kaam ho jaane par) Sadqe karna Waajib hai.
Kaffaara –
[1]Qasam todne par;
[2] Haalat e Ehraam me koi sagheera galti hone par Sadqa dena Waajib hai.
[3] Maah e Ramazaan ke Farz Roza Qaza ho jaane par, (Agar ek farz roze ke badle lagaatar 60 roze nahi rakh sakta to 60 miskeeno ko ek din ke liye dono waqt bhar pait khaana khilaana hoga).

(3) Sunnat wa Mustahab :
Sadqa e Haajat – Koi haajat paish aane par ya museebat ya beemaari ya haadsa aane par;
Sadqa e Shukr – Koi ne’amat milne par ya sehat milne par ya koi kaam pura hone par;
Koi kaarobaar shuru karte waqt;
Safar shuru karne se pehle aur Safar se lautne kae baad;

(4) Nafl Sadqa (Khairaat).

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Sadqa ki fazeelat :
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Sadqa ALLĀH ta’ala ke ghazab ko kam karta hai.
Sadqa dunya aur aakhirat me faa’ida pahunchaata hai.
Sadqa jo museebaten aai ho aur jo aane wali ho unhe taal deta hai.
Sadqa buri maut se bachaata hai.
Sadqa qabr me azaab se bachaata hai.
Sadqa Roz e mehshar saaya bankar hifaazat karega.
Sadqa jahannam ki aag ko thanda karega.

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Hadees e Nabawi :

Jo shakhs haraam tareeqe se maal jama kar ke sadqa kare, us ko us sadqe ka koi sawaab nahi milega, balke us haraam kamaai ka wabaal us par hai.
(Mustadrak, Hadees -1440)

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Sadqa ke muta’alliq chand khaas baaten :
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(1) Sadqa karne me ALLĀH ta’ala ki raza ki niyyat honi chaahiye, Riya (dikhaawa) ya Summa (shohrat ki laalach) nahi hona chaahiye. Aur Sadqa ke baad is par Takabbur (guroor) bhi nahi karna chaahiye. Balke ALLĀH ta’ala ka shukr ada karna chaahiye ke us ki ata ki gai ne’amat se hume Sadqa karne ka mauqa auar taufiq ata farmai.

(2) Zakaat aur Sadqa e Fitr zaahiri taur par ada karna chaahiye jis se kisi ko ye galat fehmi na ho ye Saahib e nisaab hokar bhi Zakaat aur Sadqa e Fitr ada nahi karta.
Aur dusre Sadqe chhipaakar (makhafi) karen taake kisi ko Riya ya Takabbur ka shak na ho.

(3) Sadqa Halaal maal me se karna chaahiye. Haraam tareeqe se kamaai hue maal me se sadqa karne se sawaab nahi milega balke us haraam kamaai ka wabaal hoga.

(4) Awaam me jo galat fehmi hai ke Sadqe me kuchh khaas cheez hi de sakte hain ya’ni Chaawal, Anda ya Murgi, ye sahi nahi hai.

Sadqe me maal (Raqam) de sakte hain aur is ke ilaawa galla (anaaj) dena ya khaane ki koi cheez dena (Paka hua khaana dena behtar hai) ya Kapde ya aur koi zaroorat ki cheez dena (jaise Thandi ke mausam me Kambal de sakte hain) ya beemaar ke liye dawa-ilaaj ka intazaam karna ya Kisi ko rehne ke liye Makaan bana dena ye sab bhi Sadqa me saamil hai.

(5) Sadqa Faqeer, Miskeen (jis ke paas kuchh bhi nahi yaha tak ke khaane ke liye khaana aur pahenne ke liye kapde bhi nahi), Mohtaaj, Madyoon (daindaar), Ibn us Sabeel (ya’ni Musaafir jis ke paas safar ke dauraan maal na raha to wo us ki zaroorat jitna maal le sakta hai agarche ghar par maal maujood ho) ko hi diya ja sakta hai.

Bewao aur yateemo ko bhi dena behtar hai.

Isi tarah Fee sabeelillāh – Raah e khuda me kharch kar sakte hain ya’ni Taalib e ilm ko Ilm e deen sikhne ke liye ya Jihaad me jaane wale ko (agar us ke paas saaman na ho to) de sakte hain.

(6) Agar khud ke rishtedaar (Bhai, Bahen, Chacha, Fufi, Maamu, Khaala aur in ki aulaad) Mohtaaj hain to Sadqa ke sab se pehle haqdaar wo hain, phir Mohalle wale, phir Gaanv ya shaher wale. Kyun ki ALLĀH ta’ala us sadqe ko qubool nahi farmaata jo mohtaaj rishtedaaro ko dene ke bajaay ghairo ko diya jaaye.

(7) Agar pata ho ke ye shakhs sadqe ka istemaal haraam kaam me (Sharaab, Zina, Juva, wagairah me) karega to use sadqa dena mana hai kyun ki ye Sadqa zaaya karna hai.
Isi tarah wo shakhs jo khud kama sakta hai magar kamaana nahi chaahta ya’ni Sadqa khaane ki aadat ho gai hai ya Bhik maangne ko pasha bana liya hai use Sadqa dena mana hai.

(8) Sahi Tandurast ko imdaad ke liye Sadqa de sakte hain agarche kamaane ki qudrat rakhta ho. Magar us shakhs ke liye sawaal karna jaaiz nahi ya’ni wo maang nahi sakta.

(9) Ahle bait (Bani Haashim) ko Sadqa nahi de sakte, unhe sirf Hadiya de sakte hain.

(10) Harbi kaafir ko kisi qism ka sadqa dena mana hai magar Zimmi kaafir ko Nafl sadqa (khairaat) de sakte hain agar wo mohtaaj ho.
Bad-mazhab (jo nifaaq ki wajah se kufr tak pahunch gaye hain un) ko bhi Sadqa dena mana hai.

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Sadqa e Hukmi :
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Hadees e Nabawi :
Sab se afzal behtreen Sadqa ye hai ke koi musalmaan ilm sikhe, phir apne musalmaan bhaai ko sikha de.

(Ibne Maajah)

Maal ke ilaawa ALLĀH ki ata ki hui aur ne’amaten dusre ki madad ke liye istemaal karne se Sadqa ka sawaab milta hai.

(1) Ilm – Kisi bhi baat ka ilm haasil kiya ho wo dusre ko sikhaakar taalim wa tarbiyat karna ya’ni Qur’an majeed sikhaana, Hadees shareef sikhaana, Deeni masa’il sikhaana, Wuzu aur Ghusl ka tareeqa, Namaaz, Roza, Zakaat, Hajj, Umraah, Tawaaf, Qurbaani wagairah ka tareeqa sikhaana ya Koi Dua sikhaana.
Isi tarah Neki ka hukm dene me aur buraai se rokne me bhi Sadqe ka sawaab hai.

(2) Fan ya Hunnar – Kisi ko koi fan ya hunnar sikhaana ya halaal rozgaar ka raasta sikhaana.

(3) Imdaad –
Kisi kamzor ya ma’azoor ko bojh uthaane me madad karna.
Ya koi kaam pura karne me madad karna.
Kisi zaalim se ya koi darinde ya jaanwar se kisi ki hifaazat karna.
Kisi ko sahi raasta dikhaana.
Kisi ko sahi mashwara dena.
Kisi ko museebat me tasalli aur hosla dena.
Ya us ke liye Dua e khair karna.
Qarzdaar ko qarz ada karne me mohlat dena.

(4) Kisi ke darmiyaan Suleh kara dena.

(5) Khushi ke mauqe par ya kaamyaabi par Mubarakbaad dena aur khushi me saamil hona.
Kisi ko Salaam karke ya Salaam ka jawaab dekar ya Muskurakar ya baat karke ya Izaat dekar khush karna.

(6) Raaste se takleef dene wali cheez ko door karna.
Raaste se guzarne wale ko takleef na ho is liye Roshni karna.

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Sadqa e Jaariya :
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Hadees e Nabawi :

(1) Mo’min ko us ke amal aur nekiyo se marne ke baad bhi ye cheezen pahunchti rehti hain :
Ilm jis ki us ne taalim di aur isha’at ki aur Aulaad e saaleh jise chhod gaya hai ya mus’haf (Qur’an majeed) jise miraas me chhoda ya Masjid banai ya Musaafir ke liye makaan bana diya ya Naher jaari kar di ya apni sehat aur zindagi me apne maal me se sadqa nikaal diya jo us ke marne ke baad us ko milega.
(Ibne Maajah;
Darmi)

(2) Hazrat Abu Huraira radi-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se riwaayat hai ki :
Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ne farmaaya
‘Insaan jab mar jaata hai to us ke aamaal khatm ho jaate hain (rook jaate hain), Magar 3 cheezen baaqi rehti hain :
[1] Sadqa e Jaariya,
[2] Ilm jis se log faa’ida uthaayen,
[3] Nek aulaad jo waalidain ke liye Dua e Maghfirat kare.

Sadqa e Jaariya wo amal hai jis ko ek baar karne ke baad us ka sawaab insaan ko us ki zindagi me bhi milta rehta hai aur aakhirat me (Qabr me aur Mehshar me) bhi milta rehta hai jab tak wo cheez maujood rehti hai.

Sadqa e Jaariya me 3 cheezen saamil hain :
(1) Sadqa e Jaariya –
Logo ke liye paani ka intazaam karna ya’ni kuan khudwakar waqaf kar dena, naher jaari karwaana, Paani ke liye sabeel banaana;
Ghareebo ke liye khaane ka intazaam karna (Langar);
Musaafir-khaana (Sara) banaana;
Koi ped (darakht) lagaana jis ke saaye se aur dusri cheezo se logo ko faa’ida mile;
Hasptaal ya Dawakhaana ke intazaam karna.
Masjid ki taamir me hissa lena.

[2] Ilm jis se log faa’ida uthaayen,
Kisi taalim e deen karna ya’ni kisi ko Qur’an majeed sikhaaya ho, hadees ka dars diya ho ya koi deeni masa’il sikhaaya ho;
Kisi ko Qur’an majeed ya deeni kitaab ka hadiya dena;
Madrasa ki taamir me hissa lena.

[3] Nek aulaad –
Jo waalidain ke liye Dua e Maghfirat kare ya Isaal e sawaab kare.

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ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae aur Sab ko Sadqa karke us ke fayuz o barkaat haasil karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur in baato ko yaad rakhkar amal karne ki aur dusro ko bataane ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaaiz muraado ko puri farmae.
Aameen.